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# application of statistics in educational research

Introduction

1.1 Background

Education is life long process. It is a symbol civilization and development of human being of any nation. It is a natural right of any person. Education starts from cradle and ends in grave. It and develop the nation by developing different kinds of technologies. Because if education men have been to other planet. The government of any nation spends a lot of money for education. To evaluate the achievement, objectives, effectiveness of education we have to use different kinds of statistical data and analysis to interpret them.

When human civilization began statistics also began alongside. It started from Europe. At first its field was narrow but as human civilization develops it also developed and become wider. It was used in countries properties and census at first by Hebrews and Pharaohs in ancient time. According to Hebrews it was used ever in their land reform system in 1400 B.C. By Romus ii Kautilya had also Bed statistics in economics before in BC. Nepalean also used statistics to run the government on the basis of income and expenditure of the nation during the war.

The world statics have been developed from different kinds of concept from different fields. Statistics have been taken to English word status and German world statistik. The German word statistic means political state and it was first used by Professor Goft Frred (1719 – 1771) in the political science of the several countries. Thus statistics simply may be defined as the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data.

The statistics is a very important subject in modern age because of developed new technologies. It is needed in business, physical science, natural science, research, labour union, different kinds of companies, banking, workers, politician and farmer. It is one of the most important basis for the government to run properly. The main functions of statistics are presented below:

1. To present the fact.
2. To simpliphy the mass of figure.
• To compare.
1. To test reliability and validity by analyzing data.
2. To give decision by analyzing the raw data mathematically.
3. To formulate and to test hypothesis.
• To predict for future.
• To apply suitable policies.
1. To find out the weakness.
2. To improve and to suggest.

At last statistics is used to evaluate average of average and to predict of the numerical distribution. It helps to forward the planning by formulating suitable policies it is used in any sector. Generally in education sector it is used to calculate mean, median, mode standard deviation range, percentile, quartile and correlation data by analyzing.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

Any programme has some objectives and the objective directs the program in certain oisha. Here, faculty of education curriculum evolution course M. Ed 2nd year subject “Application of Statistics in Education” has partial requirement for the fulfillment of the course. The main objectives of the study are given below:

1. To measure of central tendency on the basis of mean and medium and to analyzing the data.
2. To determine the dispersion and range of the statistical data.
• To determine the relative position of the students on the basis o percentile rank and Quartile rank.
1. To find out the error of measurement and analysis true score and erroe score.
2. To determine the significance of mean by using T – test for analysis hypothesis.
3. To find out chi – square test to analysis and to interpret the data.
• To use histogram, polygon and pie- chart on the basis of enrollment of student for five year and pass and fail percentage of last year.

1.3 Method of study

2.1 On the basis of syllabus data collected from grade XI and IX from Jantashahayog Higher Secondary School Itahari – 24, Tarahara.

2.2 level wise objectives help fix wider towards its limits because we can’t prepare the whole data to collect each and every types of measurement methods. So we conclude the data in each and every method. So far this reason the following data are selected for calculation. They are on the appendix at the back of this study. Find on grade nine marks of science and English has taken to calculate the data. From class XI marks of English and Nepali has been taken to calculate and analyze the data. In this way 14 students have taken from class six giving 20 objective question o science and they formers child and labour child for t – test. Thus we had taken 20 students of class 8 and divided into two groups experimental group and control group for t – test.

1.4 Analysis and interpretation of the data

Data collected for the study of statistical analysis and interpretation are guided into following units.

1. Measure of central tendency.
2. Measurement of dispersion.
• Chart and graphs.
1. Measure of relative position.
2. Measure of relationship and association.
3. Testing Hypothesis.