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# application of statistics in educational Chart and Graph research

Chart and Graph

Chart and graph is used to show the statistical data is simple way and to understand easily. Chart and graph is more useful for making the statistical data clear and meaningful. Graph and chart make the study interesting. Graphical names and its wanted knowledge are clear. The simple and scale must be clear. Such on the presented variables should be fully clear to study. For presenting chart and Graph, Bar diagram histogram, polygon and pie-chart are used.

3.1 Five years student enrollment by sex

5 years enrollment status of class 1 to 10 students of Shree Janasahayog Higher Secondary School is given below in the table.

Table No. 14

5 Years enrollments of students

 Year 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 No. of boys 247 240 205 161 166 No. of girls 316 266 219 248 236 Total 563 506 424 409 402
• Bar Diagram
1. a) Simple bar diagram

It presents the single rectangle in bar. Its height shows the mark or quantity.

1. b) Multiple bar diagram

It is used to show two or more than two variables in single graphical presentation. Figure: 1

Multiple Bar-diagram of above status

The enrollment status from the above bar diagram shows decrease of no of students with the respect of increase of time period. It shows the enrollment of 2067 highest and 2071 is the least. It shows that the decreasing rate is increasing. The decreasing rate from 2067 to 2071 is 28.59 %. No. of boys is 2067 and 2071 there is yearly 32.79 %. No. of girls is decreasing from 2067 to 2069 but increased in 2070 again it decreased in 2071.

• Pie-Chart

It is one of most popular method from school level to college level. It is measured in degree. Pie-chart is circle. We have to change the data in to degree (360o) by taking the data equal to 360o.

1. ii) Five years enrollment of the students shown in pie-chart

Table No. 14

Five years enrollment of the students shown in pie-chart

 Year 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 No. of boys 247 240 205 161 166 No. of girls 316 266 219 248 236 Total 563 506 424 409 402

Total No. of 5 years students = 2304

Year 2067 =( 563/2304) x 100%= 24.44 %

Year 2068 = (506/2304)x 100% = 21.96 %

Year 2069 =(424/2304)x 100  = 18.40 %

Year 2070 =(409/2304)x100%  = 17.75 %

Year 2071 = (402/2304)x100% = 17.45 % It shows that enrollment of 2067 is 24.44 % among all 5 years it is highest. Then generally 21.90 %, 18.40 %, 17.75 % and 17.45 % respectively the year 2068, 2069, 2070 and 2071. The above pie-chart shows us that the enrollment percentage is decreasing.

iii) Last years pass percentage of Shree Janasahayog Higher Secondary School from 1 to  10 class is given below in pie-chart percentage is changed into degree.

 Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Pass % 100 100 100 100 100 90.55 93.75 100 100 100

Total percentage = 984.30

For class – 1 =(100/984.30)x 360  = 36.57 %

Class – 2 = 36.57o, Class – 3 = 36.57o, class – 4 = 36.57o, class – 5 = 36.57 o, class – 6 = 33.12 o, class–7 = 34.29 o, class – 8 = 36.57 o, class – 9 = 36.87 o, class–10 = 36.57 o. The above pie-chart shows that all of the students have passed exam. Except class – 6 and 7 there is no one failed in exam of 2071 in Janasahayog Higher Secondary School. In percent 98.26 students were passed and in degree 353.37 students were passed. This result concludes that the position is better in proper of Janasahayog Higher School in reality.

3.4 Histogram

There are many kinds of methods for presenting a frequency distribution graphically one of them is Histogram. It is the most popular and widely used method in practice. It is a set of vertical bars whose areas are proportional to the frequency represented. There is no gap and designed as rectangle also the histogram is continuous. The class interval also designed equally. In histogram variables are taken on x-axis and frequencies are taken on y-axis.

Now, histogram for the class nine students of Shree Janasahayog Higher Secondary School, Itahari-24 in English subject is presented below:

Table – 15

histogram of English subject

 Make obtained Frequency (f) 10-20 4 20-30 3 30-40 15 40-50 6 50-60 0 60-70 2 N = 30

Figure :4

Histogram of English subject of class IX Histogram frequency polygon of class IX of Science subject is given below of Janasahayog Higher Secondary School.

 10-20          20-30                30-40                 40-50            50-60            60-70

Histogram  frequency polygon

There are many kinds of methods for presenting a frequency  polygon distribution graphically one of them is frequency polygon of histogram . It is the most popular and widely used method in practice.

Table No. 16

frequency polygon of class IX of science

 Make obtained Frequency (f) 5-15 3 15-25 4 25-35 8 35-45 8 45-55 3 55-65 3 65-75 0 75-85 1 N= 30
 Scan and place frequency polygon

The above histogram polygon shows the mark of science of class – 9 of Shree Janasahayog Higher Secondary School, Itahari is not satisfactory. Among 30 students 22 had got mark below 40 and only 8 students have got above 40. More over the class 50-60 is disappeared. But result is satisfactory because only 7 students failed ad 23 has passed. Such as in science, the mark obtained by the students of calss-9 is also not satisfactory  however it is  normal only seven students failed and 23 had passed. So the result of science is also better. 